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Even cases that do get seen by a family doctor or a hospital are often misdiagnosed as one of the many common infectious diseases with overlapping symptoms.Thus, it is recommended that HIV be considered in people presenting with an unexplained fever who may have risk factors for the infection.
If replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe, mothers should avoid breastfeeding their infants; however exclusive breastfeeding is recommended during the first months of life if this is not the case.
During primary infection, the level of HIV may reach several million virus particles per milliliter of blood. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections.
T cells are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells.
Blood-borne transmission can be through needle-sharing during intravenous drug use, needle stick injury, transfusion of contaminated blood or blood product, or medical injections with unsterilized equipment.
The risk from sharing a needle during drug injection is between 0.63 and 2.4% per act, with an average of 0.8%.
The World Health Organization recommends treating all children less than 5 years of age; children above 5 are treated like adults.